A server employing greylisting deliberately degrades mail service for unknown or suspect sources, over a short period of time. Typically, it records three pieces of data, known as a "triplet", for each incoming mail message:
The IP address of the connecting host
The envelope sender address
The envelope recipient address(es), or just the first of them
This data is registered on the mail server's internal database, along with the time-stamp of its first appearance. The email message will be dismissed with a temporary error until the configured period of time is elapsed, usually some minutes or a small number of hours. Temporary errors are defined in the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) as 4xx reply codes: Fully capable SMTP implementations are expected to maintain queues for retrying message transmissions in such cases. When a sender has proven itself able to properly retry delivery, it will be whitelisted for a longer period of time, so that future delivery attempts will be unimpeded. For example, a greylisting email server can require a successful delivery attempt against a registered triplet to be no earlier than 25 minutes after registration and not later than 4 hours after it. Repeated delivery attempts before the 25 minute period will be ignored with the same 4xx reply code. After 4 hours the triplet will be expired, so delivery attempts will register anew. When the greylisting email server sees an attempt within the 25 minute - 4-hour window, the connecting host will be whitelisted for 36 days.
The temporary rejection can be issued at different stages of the SMTP dialogue, allowing an implementation to store more or less data about the incoming message. The trade-off is more work and bandwidth for more exact matching of retries with original messages. Rejecting a message after its content has been received allows the server to store a choice of headers and/or a hash of the message body.
In addition to whitelisting good senders, a greylisting; email server can provide for exceptions. Greylisting can generally be overridden by a fully validated TLS connection with a matching certificate. Because large senders often have a pool of machines that can send (and resend) email, IP addresses that have the most-significant 24 bits (/24) the same are treated as equivalent, or in some cases SPF records are used to determine the sending pool. Similarly, some e-mail systems use unique per-message return-paths, for example, variable envelope return path (VERP) for mailing lists, Sender Rewriting Scheme for forwarded e-mail, Bounce Address Tag Validation for backscatter protection, etc. If an exact match on the sender address is required, every e-mail from such systems will be delayed. Some greylisting systems try to avoid this delay by eliminating the variable parts of the VERP by using only the sender domain and the beginning of the local-part of the sender address.
"Greylisting." Wikipedia. Accessed November 22, 2016.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greylisting